浙江保存最完整的古村the best preserved ancient village in Zhejiang

丽水松阳县三都乡呈回村,2014年被列入第三批中国传统村落名录。呈回村位于三都乡政府所在地12公里处的半山腰上,因四面环山,呈回字形而取名呈回村。一条石板古道穿村而过,十几幢古民居依次排列。村中还有社庙、宗祠和古井等文物遗存。

呈回村距松阳县城东北方向15公里,以其四山环抱,一水回绕,取名呈回。呈回村建于明洪武年间,现有188户,492人,山林6786亩,梯田335亩,产稻谷、油菜籽、茶叶、竹子、松树、杉木等。

据《宋氏宗谱》记载,明洪武年间,宋可三自浙江浦江迁徙到呈回村,宋可三是明代开国文臣之首、著名的史学家和文学家宋濂的孙子。明景泰间,汤惟正自丽水五云迁居松川三都之呈回,汤姓系南宋政治家、宰相汤思退后裔。呈回村有汤、宋、潘、陈等姓氏,其中以汤姓居多,达到90%。呈回是远近文明的长寿村,80岁以上的老人有7人,年纪最长者95岁。

呈回村海拔643米,坐北朝南,背山临水,村落盘踞半山腰突出的台地上,呈长方形,东西长1200多米,南北宽300多米,是典型的台地式传统村落。远看呈回村,崇山峻岭,层峦叠嶂,群峰竞秀,气势雄伟,沉浸在云蒸霞蔚中。呈回村似在四面悬崖的壁垒中辟出一块方寸之地,它的脚下是一条名为安寮溪的小溪流,把四周的群山和村子有机地缀在了一起。全村多为山间梯田,属于“九山半水半分田”的典型山区农村,是松阳县拥有生态公益林最多的几个村落之一。

Back to the village was 643 meters above sea level, facing south, mountain water village, the hillside terrace entrenched prominent, rectangular, something more than 1200 meters long, 300 meters wide north-south, is a typical platform style of traditional villages. Yuankan was back to the village, high mountains and lofty hills, show the magnificent peaks, layer upon layer of peaks and knolls, and immersed in the The rosy clouds are slowly rising.. It was back to the village to create a barrier on the ground of heart surrounded by cliffs, it is at the foot of a river called Ann Liao river stream, the surrounding mountains and the village of organic compose together. The village is the mountain terraces, belonging to the "half water half minutes of cropland" is one of the typical mountainous rural areas, Songyang county has the largest ecological forest in several villages.

呈回村是松阳县保存最完整的村落之一。主要原因是地处偏远,交通不便,信息闭塞,600年来村里人一直过着日出而作日落而息的生活。村落中完整地保留着30余幢清代民居、汤氏宗祠、宋氏宗祠、古道、古井、社庙、学堂等建筑,2011年被公布为县级历史文化名村。宅院格局均为三合院、四合院式和一字屋,外观立面和梁架结构等都基本保存原有的传统风貌。呈回村村中房屋鳞次栉比,错落有序,三官殿、宋氏宗祠、唐胜社、汤氏宗祠、唐葛周庙呈不规则的一字型从东到西分布在村落中,形成了村落的中轴线。建筑十分古朴典雅,有高堂华屋、深宅大院,亦有小楼庭园、村居农舍。其砖雕门楼、雕梁画栋突显华贵,土石夯筑、砖木构建也十分古朴。村内屋宇相连、门户相通,巷道高低错落,块石小道,四通八达。尤以一条石板道格外醒目,此道修于清嘉庆十五年,蜿蜒贯穿整个村子。因村落格局如同美女,所以石板道有玉带之说。从松阳通宣平的松宣古驿道经村而过,古道、客栈、凉亭等传统交通系统完好保留。

he village was one of the most complete villages in Songyang county. The main reason is the remoteness, traffic inconvenience, lack of information, 600 years in the village lived a sunrise and sunset of life. In the village, to retain the integrity of more than 30 buildings in the Qing Dynasty houses, Tang ancestral hall, the ancestral hall, the ancient, ancient, temple, school buildings, was released in 2011 for the historical and cultural village. The house is courtyard courtyard pattern, and a house, and all the exterior facades beam structure basically preserved the original traditional style. The house was back to the village in the row upon row of scattered and orderly, three Guan temple, the ancestral hall, Tang Shengshe, Tang ancestral hall, Tang Ge Zhou Temple was a font of irregular distribution from east to West in the village, the village has formed the central axis. The building is very simple and elegant, with Gao Hua Wu, also a small courtyard, garden, village farmhouse. The brick gatehouse, a richly ornamented building highlight luxurious, hangzhu, brick construction debris is also very simple. The village houses connected, the portal is the roadway height scattered, stone trail, extending in all directions. Especially in a flagstone road eye-catching, it built in Jiaqing fifteen years, winding through the whole village. Because the village pattern like beauty, so that a jade stone road. From Songyang tongxuan flat matsunobu ancient post road through the village, road, inn, and other traditional transportation system intact pavilion.

呈回村是松阳木雕的代表村落之一。呈回村木雕相当精美,木雕技艺主要表现在建筑的梁枋、牛腿、雀替、挂落、门窗、回廊等处,以传说人物、神兽、动物、花卉、虫草为题材的雕刻很多,诸如龙、凤、麒麟、狮子、象、虎、鹤、猴、鹿、牛、马、羊、喜鹊、鸳鸯、鼠、兔、蝙蝠、鸡、鸭、鱼、蟹、虾、蜘蛛、田螺、蝶、蜻蜓、蜜蜂、壁虎等等,多达几十种动物,它们活灵活现,形象逼真,惟妙惟肖。工匠在细节部位上进行了巧妙的夸张,给各种木雕动物鲜活的生命力,达到传神的效果。竹子、兰花、牡丹、梅花、荷花、菊花、松树、石榴、卷草纹、连理枝等等植物花卉组成的图案,有序地雕刻在建筑的每个构建上,起着重要的装饰作用。村落一些房子的板壁上绘着“福寿禄”字样的壁画,许多建筑的门墙都有题诗绘画,保留着十多块牌匾和木对联,多为历代名流手笔。许多古民居门楣匾额石刻字迹儒雅隽秀,多出自四书五经,匡扶正义,吉祥如意,哲理深刻透彻。

Back to the village is one of the representatives of Songyang wood carvings. A return to the village of wood carving is very exquisite, mainly in the construction of the beam bracket, Fang, sparrow, hanging down, windows and doors, corridors, etc., to the legendary animal, animal, flowers, Cordyceps as the theme of the sculpture, such as dragon, Phoenix, kylin, lion, elephant, tiger, crane, monkey, deer, cattle, horses, sheep, magpie, Yuanyang, rat, rabbit, chicken, duck, fish, bats, spiders, crabs, shrimp, snail, butterflies, dragonflies, bees, house lizard and so on, up to dozens of animal, they are vivid, vivid, lifelike. Details of the site are artisans skillfully exaggerated, for all kinds of animal carvings fresh vitality, achieve the vivid effect. Bamboo, orchid, peony, plum, lotus, chrysanthemum, pine, pomegranate, stria, branches and so on plant flower patterns, orderly carving in the construction of each building, plays an important role in the decoration. Some of the houses of the village wall painted with "Fu Lu" on the door wall murals, many buildings have a poem painting, retains more than and 10 plaques and wood for ages celebrity handwriting antithetical couplet. Many ancient houses lintel stone plaque writing elegant Juanxiu, from The Four Books and the Five Classics, Kuangfu justice, luck and profound thorough.

悠久的历史给村里留下了汤氏宗祠、宋氏宗祠、社庙、古井、古民居等多处文物遗迹。如今村中十几幢古民居依次排列在石板古道两旁,布局因地制宜、顺势而建,鳞次栉比,错落有致,屋宇相连,门户各异,装饰以石雕和木雕为主,主题包括祛邪扶正、吉祥如意等。

The long history has left Tang ancestral hall, the ancestral hall, temple, ancient, ancient houses and many cultural relics to the village. Now the village dozen blocks of ancient dwellings are arranged on both sides of the stone road, layout conditions, homeopathy, row upon row of houses connected portal, well-proportioned, different, decorated with stone and wood carvings, including the theme, good luck and Fuzheng quxie.

丽水松阳呈回村

汤氏宗祠于清乾隆十八年(1753)初建,此后又历经四次修缮。宗祠位于西村口,坐北朝南,平面呈长方形,由门厅、正殿及两侧厢房组成,单檐泥木结构,通面阔14米,进深18米,占地面积251平方米。门厅明间设戏台,正殿上挂“孝思”、“乡魁”古匾。檐柱无牛腿,八字门墙,中轴线上辟六扇木质大门,门前两侧有一对立式桅杆石。宗祠前有院道,东西两侧辟砖砌拱门。宗祠内三合土方格墁地,天井中部石板铺设,两侧卵石镶嵌。宗祠二进系三开间二厢单檐泥木结构,硬山式,构架简单,用材小,与一进的地面高差0.8米,泥土墁地。中轴线上辟木门,前有院道,院道东端设边木门,西端为宗祠院道拱门,整条院道均为卵石铺设。东附房旧时是亦政家塾和后来的启明学校。前厅的内设戏台因年代久远,前部木板破损。值得一提的是,西厢墙壁上绘有一幅高2米、宽3米的巨大彩绘中国地图(包括外蒙),各省分色绘制,特别醒目。这也是当年封闭落后的农村用以了解外面世界的方式。

Tang ancestral hall in eighteen years of Qianlong (1753) built in the early, then after four repairs. The ancestral hall is located in the West Village, facing south, a rectangular plane, composed of hall, the main hall and the side rooms, single eaves mud wood structure, through 14 meters wide, 18 meters deep, covering an area of 251 square meters. The hall is arranged between the main hall hanging on the stage, "filial piety" and "Xiang Kui" ancient plaque. No eave column bracket, Bazimen wall axis provide six wood door, the door on both sides of a vertical mast on the stone. A hospital road hall before things open on both sides of the brick arch. The hall three earthwork grid floor, central patio stone laying on both sides of the pebble mosaic. Two in three room two hall car single eaves mud wood structure, hard hill, timber frame is simple, small, and the ground elevation 0.8 meters, ground floor. On the central axis of the open doors, before the hospital road, hospital road at the eastern end of the side doors, the Western Hall Institute of arches, the entire hospital road were laid pebbles. The East is also of real old political and private schools for the blind later. In the lobby of the design stage because of the age, the front board damaged. It is worth mentioning that the west wall painted with a 2 meters high and 3 meters wide, the huge painting China map (including Mongolia), the color rendering, especially eye-catching. This is the way to understand the outside world in the way of the backward rural areas.

宋氏宗祠位于呈回村北部村口,为清中期建筑,坐北朝南,平面呈长方形,由正殿及东、西两侧厢房组成三合院式,通面阔12米,进深12米,占地面积136平方米,为一进三开间二厢单檐泥木结构。中轴线上辟木大门,檐柱牛腿雕刻简单,原三合土墁地,天井中间卵石铺设,四边石板铺设。宗祠布局规整,格局保存完整。

The ancestral hall is located in the northern part of the village was back to the village, for the construction of the middle of Qing Dynasty, facing the south, a rectangular plane, from the main hall and the East and west sides of the composition of courtyard style, pass 12 meters wide, 12 meters deep, covering an area of 136 square meters, is a three Bay two car single eaves mud wood structure. Axis provide wooden doors, carved eaves column bracket is simple, the original concrete floor, laying gravel courtyard in the middle, four slating. Zongci structured layout, pattern of preserved.

丽水松阳呈回村

唐葛周庙位于西部村口的山坡上,建于清嘉庆十一年(1806)。庙坐西北朝东南,平面呈长方形,通面阔8.3米,进深11.2米,占地面积93平方米,一进三开间单檐泥木结构。屋面硬山式,阴阳合瓦,明间抬梁式,次间穿斗式结构,为五架梁带前后单步用四柱,内泥塑唐、葛、周三人的塑像。中轴线上辟木质栅栏门,上挂“唐葛周庙”匾,院道铺设卵石。唐葛周即唐宏、葛雍、周武三个人的合称。三人均是西周厉王时期的谏官,因厉王残暴,欺压百姓、横征暴敛又不理谏言,便离开朝廷,客居南方吴国很长时间,做了许多好事,并帮助吴王打败了楚国。后来,三人同时去世,百姓便相传三人升天成仙了,法力高强,被玉皇大帝封为天门三将军。民间不忘其恩德,特立庙祀奉敬拜,历朝历代香火不绝。特别是每逢诞辰时,村民们都会到殿敬奉,希冀三将军继续为人间禳灾降福。

ang Ge Zhou Temple is located in the west of the village on the hillside, built in the Qing Dynasty Jiaqing eleven years (1806). The temple sits northwest towards the southeast, a rectangular plane, through 8.3 meters wide, 11.2 meters deep, covering an area of 93 square meters, a three Bay single eaves mud wood structure. The roof of hard hill, yin and Yang Ming WA, the lifting beam, between Chuandou structure, five frame beam with step with before and after the column, the statue in the clay Tang, Ge, Wednesday people. Axis provide wooden fence door, hanging on the "Tang Ge Zhou Miao" plaque, hospital road paved pebbles. Tang Ge week, Ge Yong, collectively known as the Tang Hong Zhou Wu three people. Three per capita is the Western Zhou Li period admonisher, because Li brutal oppression of the people, and not on extort excessive taxes and levies, left the court, in the south of Wu for a long time, has done many good deeds, and to help the king of Wu Chu defeated. Later, three people died at the same time, people will go to heaven three according to legend, the magic strength has been called the Jade Emperor, Tianmen three. Don't forget the kindness of the folk, temple worship enshrined Teli dynasties, endless stream of pilgrims. Especially when the birth, the villagers are to the temple worship, hoping to prevent disaster for the world three general blessing.

唐胜社庙位于村中主道中段,建于清代,坐北朝南,平面呈正方形,因村道自东向西从社庙内穿过,故建筑又呈东西走向的凉亭式。庙面阔三间,三柱五檩,北首佛龛内绘有社公像,佛龛顶部有八角形图像的藻井,地面中间条石,两侧卵石铺设,与村道相连接。在旧时,社庙是全村约定俗成的传播信息、传授知识、宣讲先贤懿德、谈论历史掌故的聚集场所。庙内西北角有一块清道光二十九年(1849)禁赌碑。碑为圭首,青石质,高1米,宽0.5米,厚0.08米,碑额题“禁赌碑”三字,字径0.07米,碑额与碑文均为阴刻楷书,记述了呈回村汤、宋二姓人严禁赌博,劝民戒赌等事宜,迄今仍发挥着教化作用。

Tang Sheng Temple located in the village of the main road, built in the Qing Dynasty, the south, the plane was a square, because the road from east to west from the agency through the building and a temple, the pavilion type east-west. Temple miankuo three, three column five purlin, the first North Fokan painted with the public image, image of the shrine at the top of the octagonal caisson, the middle ground stone, on both sides of the pebble laying, connected with the village road. In the old days, the temple of the village is the Convention of the dissemination of information, knowledge, and historical anecdotes about preaching sages Esther gathering place. The northwest corner of a Qing Dynasty twenty-nine years (1849) gambling monument. The monument to the first, green stone, 1 meters high, 0.5 meters wide, 0.08 meters thick, the title of "gambling monument" three words, words with a diameter of 0.07 meters, the inscriptions were incised script, described was back to the village of soup, two people surnamed song no gambling, gambling and other matters to persuade people so far. Still play the role of education.

丽水松阳呈回村

呈回村20号民居建于清代,坐西朝东,平面呈长方形,通面阔15米,进深11米,占地面积117平方米,为一进五开间单弄二厢重檐泥木结构楼房。明间置有一对青石质鼓凳。中轴线上辟石库门,上石雕门楣题额“鸿彩翼云”,檐柱牛腿雕竹节纹、曲线纹花卉图案,几何纹格扇门、花窗。次间窗格刻有蝙蝠、松鹤、金鸡报竹、牡丹、花鸟等图案。地面泥土墁地,天井石板铺设。门墙因年代久远损毁,现已修复,两厢格扇窗的花窗改为了玻璃窗。

Back to the village of 20 houses were built in the Qing Dynasty, facing the East, a rectangular plane, through 15 meters wide, 11 meters deep, covering an area of 117 square meters, is a single lane two car into five bay mud wood structure building eaves. A pair of green stone drum stool - ming. Axis provide Shikumen, carved stone lintel questions the amount of "Hong colourful cloud", eave column lines, Qu Xianwen carved corbels bamboo flower patterns, geometric patterns, flower window lattice door. Between the panes engraved with the bat, stork, Golden Rooster reported bamboo, peony, flower and bird pattern. The soil ground floor, stone paved courtyard. The door wall due to age-old damage has been repaired, flower window lattice window to the hatchback glass window.

呈回村31号民居建于民国初年,坐北朝南,平面呈长方形,通面阔20米,进深16米,占地面积328平方米,三合院式,为一进五开间二厢重檐泥木结构楼房。外台门额书“长庚西照”。中轴线上辟石库门,砖雕门楣题额“南峰拱秀”,门内额墨书“慎乃俭德”,上花砖叠涩出跳。檐柱牛腿雕鹿和曲线纹含牡丹、鲤鱼、花卉图案,厢房格扇门内为玻璃,外为长方格纹含花卉图案。两侧次间窗格雕有蝙蝠、雀、玉兔、牡丹、桃子、石榴、万年青等图案。额枋雕五福捧寿图。地面为三合土方格墁地,天井有水磨地圆形松鹤图。外有院道和外大门,院道地面卵石铺设。

Was back to the Village No. 31 houses built in the early Republic of China, facing the south, a rectangular plane, through 20 meters wide, 16 meters deep, covering an area of 328 square meters, is a courtyard style, into the five room two car roof mud wood structure building. Outside the station door book "Chang Gung Xi zhao". Axis provide Shikumen brick lintel, questions the amount of "south peak arch show" door in the amount of ink book "Shen Naijian de", on tile corbel jump. Eave column bracket and curve lines carved deer containing peony, carp, flower pattern, the lattice door glass, outside the plaid pattern with flower pattern. Both sides between the pane carved with bats, birds, rabbit, peony, peach, pomegranate, evergreen pattern. Dr. Chen Shou figure carved architrave. The ground is three earthwork lattice floor, terrazzo patio with circle Songhe map. Outside the hospital and outside the gate, the hospital road surface gravel.

呈回村34号民居建于清代,坐北朝南,平面呈长方形,通面阔21米,进深16米,占地面积340多平方米,为一进五开间带双弄四厢重檐泥木结构楼房。外台门额题砖雕楷书的“启明献瑞”四字。中轴线上辟石库门,砖雕门楣题额“南山拱秀”。前廊道上施船蓬轩,檐柱牛腿雕狮子、曲线纹花卉图案,几何纹格扇门、花窗,外门墙墨绘梅、竹图,前廊道上挂“年高德邵”、“词壇拔幟”、“揆咨岳佐”三块古匾。地面三合土墁地,天井石板铺设。建筑因年代久远,楼板、瓦片等局部受损。

Back to the village of 34 houses were built in the Qing Dynasty, facing the south, a rectangular plane, through 21 meters wide, 16 meters deep, covering an area of more than and 340 square meters, is a five room with double lane four car roof mud wood structure building. Outside the station door one brick script "Qiming greetings" four words. Axis provide Shikumen brick lintel, questions the amount of "Nanshan arch show". Before the corridor on the ship Peng Xuan Shi, Yan Zhu corbel carved lion, curve pattern of floral patterns, geometric patterns of lattice door, window, door wall ink painting plum, bamboo, the corridor hung "high de Shao", "Ci" pull the banner ", in consultation with three pieces of ancient Yue" plaque. Concrete ground floor, stone paved courtyard. Buildings due to the old age, floor, tile and other local damage.

井水是古村落村民日常生产、生活用水的主要来源,分布在依山势而逐渐升高的古巷旁。呈回村的古水井位于呈回村北部井头路北端,地势较高,昔日是全村数百人的饮用水源。井水冬暖夏凉。每逢夏季大旱之年全村人都到此取水,井水也始终取之不尽。该古井建于清初,深2.5米。井圈呈圆鼓形,青石打造,高44厘米,圈外径60厘米,内径38厘米,厚11厘米。井壁块石堆砌,水井地面为块石铺设,井北侧紧靠山体,山体用块石砌筑,以免山泥坍塌。

Water is the main source of ancient village villagers' daily production and living water, and increased gradually in the distribution of ancient mountain roadside. Was back to the village of ancient wells located in the northern wells was back to the village road north, the former is higher, hundreds of people drinking water in the village. The water in winter and cool in summer. During the summer drought year all the village is water, water is inexhaustible. The built in the ancient Qing Dynasty, 2.5 meters deep. Well circle was round drum shaped, stone build, 44 cm high, circle diameter of 60 cm, diameter 38 cm, 11 cm thick. Wall stone pile, well ground for the block stone laying, close to the north side of the mountain, the mountain with a block of stone masonry, so as to avoid the collapse of the mountain mud. 

11月25日发布的第三批中国传统村落名录中,丽水松阳县就达42个,成为入围名录最多的县。呈回村就是这42个村落中的一个。 

November 25th release of the third batch of Chinese traditional village list, Songyang Lishui County on the 42, becoming the most finalists list of counties. Is back to the village is one of the 42 villages.

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